Plant Transcription Factor Database
Previous version: v3.0
Aegilops tauschii
M-type_MADS Family
Species TF ID Description
EMT02362M-type_MADS family protein
EMT02801M-type_MADS family protein
EMT02802M-type_MADS family protein
EMT03010M-type_MADS family protein
EMT04724M-type_MADS family protein
EMT05014M-type_MADS family protein
EMT05876M-type_MADS family protein
EMT07081M-type_MADS family protein
EMT07746M-type_MADS family protein
EMT10553M-type_MADS family protein
EMT11116M-type_MADS family protein
EMT11118M-type_MADS family protein
EMT12036M-type_MADS family protein
EMT12832M-type_MADS family protein
EMT12833M-type_MADS family protein
EMT13095M-type_MADS family protein
EMT13097M-type_MADS family protein
EMT14974M-type_MADS family protein
EMT15150M-type_MADS family protein
EMT16026M-type_MADS family protein
EMT16030M-type_MADS family protein
EMT16651M-type_MADS family protein
EMT16662M-type_MADS family protein
EMT17586M-type_MADS family protein
EMT18227M-type_MADS family protein
EMT18413M-type_MADS family protein
EMT18707M-type_MADS family protein
EMT19631M-type_MADS family protein
EMT20860M-type_MADS family protein
EMT21327M-type_MADS family protein
EMT22165M-type_MADS family protein
EMT22867M-type_MADS family protein
EMT24518M-type_MADS family protein
EMT25213M-type_MADS family protein
EMT25887M-type_MADS family protein
EMT26385M-type_MADS family protein
EMT26600M-type_MADS family protein
EMT26691M-type_MADS family protein
EMT26905M-type_MADS family protein
EMT27093M-type_MADS family protein
EMT27327M-type_MADS family protein
EMT27328M-type_MADS family protein
EMT27329M-type_MADS family protein
EMT27416M-type_MADS family protein
EMT27929M-type_MADS family protein
EMT28175M-type_MADS family protein
EMT28179M-type_MADS family protein
EMT28627M-type_MADS family protein
EMT29162M-type_MADS family protein
EMT29916M-type_MADS family protein
EMT30881M-type_MADS family protein
EMT31207M-type_MADS family protein
EMT31486M-type_MADS family protein
EMT31882M-type_MADS family protein
EMT32355M-type_MADS family protein
EMT32481M-type_MADS family protein
EMT32482M-type_MADS family protein
EMT32609M-type_MADS family protein
EMT32611M-type_MADS family protein
EMT32696M-type_MADS family protein
M-type_MADS (M-type MADS) Family Introduction

The best studied plant MADS-box transcription factors are those involved in floral organ identity determination. Analysis of homeotic floral mutants resulted in the formulation of a genetic model, named the ABC model, that explains how the combined functions of three classes of genes (A, B, and C) determine the identity of the four flower organs (reviewed by Coen and Meyerowitz, 1991). Arabidopsis has two A-class genes (AP1 and AP2 [Bowman et al., 1989]), two B-class genes (PI and AP3), and a single C-class gene (AG), of which only AP2 is not a MADS-box gene. Recently, it was shown that the Arabidopsis B- and C-function genes, which control petal, stamen, and carpel development, are functionally dependent on three highly similar MADS-box genes, SEP1, SEP2, and SEP3 (Pelaz et al., 2000). Interestingly, only when mutant knockout alleles of the three SEP genes were combined in a triple sep1 sep2 sep3 mutant was loss of petal, stamen, and carpel identity observed, resulting in a flower composed of only sepals. This example shows that redundancy occurs in the MADS-box gene family, which complicates reverse genetic strategies for gene function analysis. The SHP genes provide another example of MADS-box gene redundancy. shp1 and shp2 single mutants do not exhibit any phenotypic effect, whereas in the double mutant, development of the dehiscence zone is disturbed in the fruit, resulting in a failure to release seeds (Liljegren et al., 2000)[1].

It has been proposed that there are at least 2 lineages (type I and type II) of MADS-box genes in plants, animals, and fungi. Most of the well-studied plant genes are type II genes and have three more domains than type I genes from the N to the C terminus of the protein:intervening (I) domain (~30 codons), keratin-lik e coiled-coil (K) domain (~70 codons), and Cterminal (C) domain (variable length). These genes are called the MIKC-type and are specific to plants[2].

The MADS-box is a DNA binding domain of 58 amino acids that binds DNA at consensus recognition sequences known as CArG boxes [CC(A/T)6GG] (Hayes et al., 1988; Riechmann et al., 1996b). The interaction with DNA has been studied in detail for the human and yeast MADS-box proteins thanks to the resolved crystal structures (Pellegrini et al., 1995; Santelli and Richmond, 2000). The I domain is less conserved and contributes to the specification of dimerization. The K domain is characterized by a coiled-coil structure, which facilitates the dimerization of MADS-box proteins (Davies et al., 1996; Fan et al., 1997). The C domain is the least conserved domain; in some cases, it has been shown to contain a transactivation domain or to contribute to the formation of multimeric MADS-box protein complexes (Egea-Cortines et al., 1999; Honma and Goto, 2001)[1].

1.Parenicova L, de Folter S, Kieffer M, Horner DS, Favalli C, Busscher J, Cook HE, Ingram RM, Kater MM, Davies B, Angenent GC, Colombo L.
Molecular and phylogenetic analyses of the complete MADS-box transcription factor family in Arabidopsis: new openings to the MADS world.
Plant Cell. 2003 Jul;15(7):1538-51.
PMID: 12837945
2.Nam J, dePamphilis CW, Ma H, Nei M.
Antiquity and evolution of the MADS-box gene family controlling flower development in plants.
Mol Biol Evol. 2003 Sep;20(9):1435-47. Epub 2003 May 30.
PMID: 12777513